1 Samuel 17:31-58.
Facing the Giants

Copyright © 2016, Dr. John W. (Jack) Carter.  All rights reserved.
www.biblicaltheology.com   Scripture quotes from KJV


The biblical historical narrative that is recorded in the 17th chapter of the Old Testament book of 1 Samuel is probably one of the best known of all of the history of ancient Israel: the slaying of Goliath, a Philistine giant by the young and courageous David, the shepherd, the son of Jesse the Bethlehemite.  There is no little controversy surrounding the technical details of the story, one that was preserved for half of a millennium before it was written in its canonical Jewish literary form.  Coupled with three millennia of cultural change and multiple languages of translation, we find it very difficult to treat the English form of the work as a detailed historical narrative.  However, there is no ambiguity when it comes to God’s purpose for Israel, one in which He will make use of David and his relationship with King Saul as the LORD seeks to lead this new “kingdom.”   

1 Samuel 17:31.  And when the words were heard which David spake, they rehearsed them before Saul: and he sent for him.

1.     INTIMIDATED BY THE PERCEIVED POWER OF THE GIANT

The 17th chapter of 1 Samuel starts with the harassment of the army of Israel by the much more powerful army of the Philistines.  The focal point of that harassment had been through the daily challenge from a very large and very loud Philistine by the name of Goliath.  The challenge was simple:  send a single soldier to face him in battle.  The nation of the loser will then serve the nation of the winner.  Confronted by such a large “giant” there were no Israelites who were either able or willing to take up the challenge.[1]

We might note at this point that there was no reasonable response to Goliath’s challenge.  The Israelites were not men of war.  As farmers and herders they lacked both the skills and the weapons to confront such a soldier in man-to-man, hand-to-hand combat.  They also lacked the power to take on the Philistine army directly, so they believed that they had no recourse but to listen to the daily taunts of this arrogant spokesman for the Philistines. 

David, a late teenager and the youngest son of Jesse, was unique among the men who witnessed Goliath’s challenge in his perspective concerning the true nature of this man:  the Israelites understood Goliath’s taunts as pointed at them; David understood Goliath’s taunts as pointed at the LORD, God.  Where the Israelites viewed Goliath as a formidable soldier, David viewed Goliath as an enemy of God, and he had confidence in God’s ability to defend Himself against any man.  Consequently, where Goliath’s size and threat seemed insurmountable to all of the Israelite men, Goliath did not so intimidate David. 

The ability of Goliath to intimidate was not so much a factor of Goliath’s size and character as how his appearance was understood by those he sought to intimidate.  The Israelites saw no solution to the dilemma, so they were overwhelmed.  We may also face obstacles in our lives that seem like giants when we are overwhelmed due to our perception of their power and our lack of any perception of overcoming it.  However, a better understanding of the nature of the challenges we face and the many means by which the LORD can work in us to face them can have a profound and positive impact on our response.  David’s example can serve as a model as we observe his response to what was generally perceived as an insurmountable problem. 

Because of his faith in God, David simply was not intimated by the size of this Philistine soldier, and began to relate his opinion to the Israelite men who cowered in fear, men who included his older brothers for whom he had come to bring provisions of food.  He was chided and denigrated by his brothers as well as by the other men, but his words found their way to King Saul who, looking for any solution to this dilemma, asked one of his minions, most likely Abner, the captain of the Israelite army, to bring to him this man who was challenging Goliath’s authority.

2.     CONFIDENCE IN THE GREATER POWER OF GOD.

1 Samuel 17:32.  And David said to Saul, Let no man’s heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.

If we consider the 1 Samuel narrative to be in chronological sequence, David is no stranger to Saul.  His introduction to Saul is recorded in Chapter 16 when, shortly after his anointing by Samuel, David was brought to King Saul when the kingdom was searched for a musician who could calm the King’s emotional crises.  Though Saul “loved” David and chose David as his armor-bearer,[2] it is evident that Saul did not have enough personal interest in David to pay much attention to him, considering him as little more than a slave, as Saul would soon demonstrate ignorance of David’s lineage, a fact that was already given to him. 

1 Samuel 17:33.  And Saul said to David, Thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.

What voices do we listen to when we receive counsel concerning the challenges we face in life?  All too often, those who counsel us do not do so from a foundation of faith, and instead of offering solutions, they rehearse the litany of characteristics of the challenge that seem undefeatable.  Describing the power of the giant, they provide no solutions.  Even our own spirit can speak to us with thoughts like “you can’t do it,” “you are too small,” “you are not smart enough,” and the list goes on.  The voices of defeat that David heard from the Israelite soldiers, including his own brothers, was echoed by King Saul.

Like the other Israelites, King Saul limited his assumptions as to the character of the fight with Goliath.  He perceived only a man-to-man standing battle with swords, shields, and spears, and certainly David was no match for Goliath if the fight were to be waged in this manner.  Consequently, Saul’s words were quite true, at least from the perspective of a warrior in traditional battle array and traditional fighting strategy.  However, David’s perspective of the situation is dramatically different than that of Saul, and he had no intention of meeting Goliath on Goliath’s terms.

1 Samuel 17:34-36.  And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father’s sheep, and there came a lion, and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock: 35And I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth: and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him. 36Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God.

Not only was David set apart from the other Israelite men by his perspective concerning the nature of the threat against Israel, he was also experienced in the art of problem solving when faced with a dangerous enemy.  Few men would take the initiative to attack a lion and/or a bear with the purpose in mind of retrieving a lamb.  Though given the responsibility over the herd, few would risk their lives for the smallest, weakest, least valuable, and most unproductive in the flock. 

David perceived the pursuit and slaughter of the lion and the bear simply as a task that needed to be done, and he was able to form a successful strategy to complete it.   Like the lion and the bear, David perceived the defeat of this boisterous Philistine as a task that needed to be done, and he could approach this conflict with the same skills, creativity, and confidence that he had in the past.  We will find that David also used the same methodology on Goliath that he did with the animals that preyed on his flock.  Furthermore, David noted that the importance of this task far outweighed the salvation of a lamb:  where the bear and lion threatened a small herd of sheep, this Philistine was threatening the “armies of the Living God.”

1 Samuel 17:37a.  David said moreover, The LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine.

Having already experienced the LORD’s hand of protection over him, David was confident that the LORD would protect him in this instance, particularly when it is the LORD who David is intending to serve.  Where all Israel looked to their own power and their own solutions to this dilemma and came up at an impasse, David was confident in the power of God to bring about a successful outcome.

When we face our giants, we are often intimidated because we limit our resources by our own personal skills, knowledge, and presuppositions.  We only see darkness in our situation when viewed through a clouded lens.  When we cannot come up with our own solution, we may consider the giant to be overwhelming, and see no possible extrication from the dilemma.  This is simply because when we attempt to solve our problems without the LORD, we are limited to our own experience, skills, and human wisdom. 

3.     HEARING AND ACCEPTING GOD’S WISE SOLUTION

1 Samuel 17:37b-39.  And Saul said unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee. 38And Saul armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; also he armed him with a coat of mail. 39And David girded his sword upon his armour, and he assayed to go; for he had not proved it. And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these; for I have not proved them. And David put them off him.

King Saul had in mind only a single strategy for meeting Goliath in battle: traditional swordplay.  Where Saul was a man of the sword, David was not.  David had little or no experience in traditional hand-to-hand combat, as iron swords and shields were extremely rare in Israel.[3]  It is likely that David had no experience in any physical combat with another man.  Having never used the sword and heavy armor, he had no confidence in his physical ability to make profitable use of them against Goliath and respectfully refused to take them into battle.  David would simply have to find a different way to confront Goliath, and he had confidence that the LORD would show him that way.

When facing our giants, we might be encumbered by the consideration of a single, less wise, yet more common, solution to a conflict.  Saul only thought of confronting Goliath with a sword and armor, the only solution that he was familiar with, the only solution to this problem that he could recommend.  However, the LORD is wiser than any man, and when we face seemingly insurmountable obstacles, there may be a means of solution that we never considered, a means that is found when we seek the leadership of the LORD and listen to the Holy Spirit as He speaks to our hearts. 

This means that, when faced with our giants, the first place to go is to prayer.  God is wise enough to present us with a different perspective from which to view our giants, a perspective that may serve to bring them down to a manageable, or even diminutive size.  Giants need not intimidate us, for if we are armed with the wisdom of the LORD, the power of the giant is diminished by godly reason, and a solution for his demise is at hand, likely a solution that we had never considered, yet a solution that we are already empowered to exercise.  When we find we can face our giants because of a Word from the LORD, it is God who receives the glory, not ourselves.  This is what the LORD desires for us.  This was certainly the case for David.

1 Samuel 17:40.  And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd’s bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand: and he drew near to the Philistine.

As David approached Goliath he carried no sword, no shield, and no armor.  Given the challenge of Goliath, all those who were witnessing this event would have been in great fear since David’s loss would result in their destruction and enslavement by the Philistines.  Yet, David did not approach Goliath without a completely thought-out plan.  Unaccustomed to hand-to-hand combat, David made use of his own unique talent and approach, using a methodology that was not common in battle, but David had developed to an art form while tending his sheep. 

David did not approach Goliath without what for him was a suitable weapon.  His was not a traditional weapon of war, but rather a simple tool that he had frequently used to ward off animals that might threaten his flock:  a cloth sling and a stone.  We might be visualizing a typical modern slingshot that is shaped like the letter “Y” with an elastic band across its arms and a place to put a projectile that is then hurled by pulling it back and then releasing it.  However, this is not the weapon that David had access to: such elastics did not yet exist.  A sling was simply a long rectangular strip of cloth, perhaps three to four feet (1 m) in length and a couple of inches (5-6 cm) wide.  The cloth would be folded at its center with the projectile placed inside of the fold.  Holding the two open ends of the cloth strip in one hand, the sling would be spun at a high rate of speed.  When one of the two ends is released, the projectile would be released with the centripetal force of the spin.  If the sling is any length at all, the projectile could be sent with a considerable speed and power.

It is quite evident that David was very skilled at the use of the sling.  He would have had a lot of practice with it while tending the sheep, and that practice gave him the skill and the confidence to use it.  He understood that this skill to be a gift of the LORD, and was confident that the LORD would empower him to confront the giant successfully.

It may be of interest that David drew five stones from the brook rather than a single stone.  Though he had confidence in the LORD to protect and guide him, he had no expectation of testing the LORD by hurling a single stone.  Confident in his ability with the sling, he still knew that he was likely to miss the mark and would need to have multiple opportunities to strike the small chink in his opponent’s armor:  the opening in his helmet that surrounds his eyes.

1 Samuel 17:41.  And the Philistine came on and drew near unto David; and the man that bare the shield went before him.

There has also been significant controversy over the description of Goliath’s weaponry and armor (and that of King Saul as previously described.)  Archeological data presents a quite different description of ancient Philistine armament, and that which Goliath is carrying is more similar to that of the much later Mesopotamian culture.  However, Goliath was no ordinary soldier, and because of his great size and the importance of this duel, it is quite possible that he was not armed in the traditional, much lighter, Philistine army equipment.  This further accentuates the dramatic contrast between the fighting power of this giant and the Israelite soldiers.  There was simply no means for any Israelite to successfully meet this big man in traditional hand-to-hand combat. 

1 Samuel 17:42-44.  And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance. 43And the Philistine said unto David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods. 44And the Philistine said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.

Goliath had no concern for his own safety when he “drew near” to David.  David clearly had no sword, and the Philistine would be thinking that any confrontation between the two would take place at a very close proximity: within a sword-length, and the engagement would be over very quickly.  One can visualize the two are first slowly approaching each other, Goliath with his spear raised at the ready, his sword at his side, his shield-bearer in the lead, and David with only a ribbon of cloth dangling in his right hand.  As each approaches the other, each is intently focused on the appearance of the other.  Goliath is virtually amused that an unarmed, and almost “adorable” teenager would be approaching him on the field.  He is literally astonished that Israel would be sending a “boy to do a man’s job.”  He certainly believes that there will be no effort needed to vanquish this unarmed child.

As the distance between the two combatants is lessening the typical conversation ensued, identifying that they were close enough to easily hear one another.  Goliath had no idea of the danger that was presented by that innocent piece of cloth dangling in David’s right hand.  Instead, he was absorbed in his own power and prowess, bidding David to come closer to him,[4] fully assured of the impossibility of the unarmed, unarmored young Israelite to survive the next few minutes.  He is already tasting the victory and anticipating the humiliation of the Israelites.

1 Samuel 17:45.  Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied.

Though Goliath may not have experienced any of the several devastating defeats that had been experienced by Philistia at the hand of the LORD in the past, he would have known of them.  Up to this point in Goliath’s challenge, the name of the LORD had not been invoked from any source.  The conflict that was to take place on this battlefield was entirely secular, exercised on both sides of the line in the sand without any consideration of Israel’s God.  However, at this point, David openly stated the truth of Goliath’s choice of enemy.  When we take a stand against the work of the Holy Spirit, in our church fellowship or without, we are taking a stand against a power we cannot by any means defeat.  By calling upon the Name of the LORD, David is assuring that Goliath and all who witness what is about to take place on this battlefield will know without a doubt that the coming victory over Philistia belongs to the LORD, not to a brave little shepherd boy.

1 Samuel 17:46-47.  This day will the LORD deliver thee into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and take thine head from thee; and I will give the carcasses of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel. 47And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the LORD’S, and he will give you into our hands.

David had a second source of confidence given to him by the LORD: a prophecy.  The LORD had already revealed to David what would transpire on this battlefield.  David was not approaching this battle without a purpose and a plan, and he was certainly approaching it with extreme prejudice, that is, David was not going to hold back in any way the violence of his intended attack upon Goliath, promising to even cut off his head once the giant is subdued.  The confident and arrogant Goliath may have become amused at David’s threats, considering that this shepherd boy who obviously had no understanding of the means of hand-to-hand combat, was not even carrying a sword.

David also threw back Goliath’s own words as he described the nature of the battlefield once an enemy is routed:  hundreds or thousands of bodies left in the field without the manpower to carry them away or bury them.  Having one’s decomposing remains left on a battlefield was considered to be the utmost form of disgrace and humiliation. 

4.     ENGAGING THE GIANT WITH CONFIDENCE

1 Samuel 17:48-49.  And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine. 49And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.

We can now visualize the climax of the encounter.  Goliath is standing tall and proud with his sword drawn.  In front of him is his shield bearer.  Because of this arrangement, Goliath is not running toward David.  He is simply standing or moving slowly and steadily forward, waiting to meet David with the point of his spear.  At this same time, David is literally running towards the Philistine.  By the time that David lets loose of the stone, the two may have been quite close.

At this point some arithmetic calculations might be quite instructive.  If the length of the sling is 2 feet (0.6 m) and the sling is spun at a rate of six rotations per second, the stone would leave the sling at a speed of 37.7 feet per second (12.56 m/s).  This would be far too fast for Goliath to react to.  If the stone were loosed from ten feet away, the stone would have been in the air for less than a quarter of a second, the minimum time it takes for someone to recognize an event with an intent to respond.  Goliath could not possibly duck his head or raise his arm to deflect it.  If the stone weighed 2.2 pounds (1 Kg) and were to travel only 0.8 inches (0.02 m) into his head after impact, the stone would have struck the head of Goliath with a force of 17,500 pounds (7,840 newtons).  This is about one hundred times more power upon impact than would be produced by a broadside with Goliath’s spear that is compared in size to a tent pole (or “weaver’s beam,” depending upon the biblical source.)  Goliath, ignorant of David’s skill, never had a chance.

It is no surprise that Goliath would have been immediately knocked to the ground.  The words, “smote the Philistine” can be understood with a range of meaning from being struck down to being killed.  Such an impact on the forehead could easily kill a person, and if it did not instantly kill Goliath, it would certainly penetrate the skull and render him unconscious for a very long time.  Verse 34 of this chapter uses the words “smote” and “slew” to indicate the ranges of this meaning, where he first “smote” his prey, and while they were under his control, he “slew” them.  This is the identical methodology that David used with Goliath.

1 Samuel 15:50-51a.  So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David. 51Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith.

With Goliath fallen, David continued running toward the body of Goliath who fell forward, literally prostrate before David.  From the viewpoint of both armies, they would have witnessed the giant Goliath drop in humility in front of this shepherd boy.  It is likely that, because of the speed of the stone, many of the witnesses did not actually see it fly through the air.  All they would have seen is their Champion first standing tall and approaching the shepherd, and then him falling to his knees and onto his face without so much as David touching him with any sword or spear. 

David stood over the body of the Philistine, took the giant’s sword, still in the sheath, and removed his head.  Often the story of the battle is ended with the defeat of Goliath with a stone and the narrative of Goliath’s decapitation is omitted.  Certainly this may be quite appropriate when the story is being related to children.  However, the story does not end with the defeat of the giant, for it is the consequence of the battle between David and Goliath that would lay the groundwork for God’s plan and purpose for Israel, and the head of Goliath would play an historically consistent part in the outcome of the battle, as it would forever change the nature of David’s ministry to the nation. 

1 Samuel 17:51b – 53.  And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled. 52And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron. 53And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their tents.

The conflict did not end with David standing over the body of Goliath, with the giant’s severed head in his hands.  Having invoked the Name of the LORD, the Philistines clearly acknowledged that what they just witnessed was the miraculous work of Israel’s God and now remembering what happened to them in the past when they angered this God, they immediately turned from the battlefield and retreated with great haste, knowing that Israel’s God would destroy them.  In their haste, they would not be carrying anything heavy enough to slow them down, so many dropped their goods and their weapons.  The poorly armed Israelites pursued the retreating Philistines, picking up weaponry as they advanced. 

Many of the Philistines were overrun by the Israelites, were killed and wounded.  Chapter 18 describes the singing of David’s praises as he killed “tens of thousands,”[5] so the loss on the battlefield for the Philistines was very significant, representing by far the biggest victory over the Philistines that had yet been experienced during Saul’s reign. 

It is notable that the cities that were abandoned by the Philistines include Gath and Ekron which were in Israel, not in Philistia.  During the period of the Judges, these cities were overrun by the Philistines, and though many Israelites remained in these cities, they were controlled by the Philistine lords.  The standoff between David and Goliath resulted in both the utter defeat of the Philistine army and the liberation of the Israelite cities. 

1 Samuel 17:54.  And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armour in his tent.

It is no surprise that David would take the head of Goliath to Saul, the King of Israel.  Recall that, if the material in the book of 1 Samuel is considered to be in chronological order, David has been called to Saul’s side several times in the past when he would play music for him.  The taking of the head of a vanquished foe to one’s superior was a very common and accepted practice in the ancient near east at a time when cell-phone photographs were hard to come by.  Proof of death was often given by the possession of the recognizable head of the vanquished.[6]

Also, the narrative notes that David put “his armor” in his tent prior to meeting Saul.  It is rather obvious that David did not take armor to the battlefield.  However, he did bring armor and weaponry back.  As the narrative describes the pursuit and destruction of the Philistine army, other biblical references to the event clearly note that they were following David in that pursuit.  Like the others, David had picked up armor and weapons, and by so doing, led the Israelite army, alongside Abner its captain.

Young David’s leadership did not go unnoticed by King Saul.  The nature of David’s service to Israel would change dramatically in the near future as he would be appointed by Saul to lead his armies.  Israel did not have the means to make iron weapons and armor, and depended upon the spoils of a vanquished enemy for their supply.  David took advantage of this opportunity to prepare himself for future conflicts, which when considering what he had done, were sure to come.

1 Samuel 17:55-56.  And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host, Abner, whose son is this youth? And Abner said, As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell. 56And the king said, inquire thou whose son the stripling is.

Given the chronology of the narrative, this verse has created no little controversy among biblical scholars.  David was clearly introduced to Saul prior to this event, and Saul knew him well as his musician and his “armor-bearer.”  However, there is a second dynamic going on here that draws from the context of the passage:  Saul had promised the marriage of one of his daughters to the soldier who would slay Goliath.[7]  Though he had been previously told that David was the son of Jesse, this would not have been of any importance to him until now.  At this point, the lineage of David becomes extremely critical since he would be merging the family of this “stripling” (youth) with his own.  Consequently, he asked Abner, who at this point is also David’s “Captain,” to inquire as to the identity and nature of David’s family.

1 Samuel 17:57-58.  And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand. 58And Saul said to him, Whose son art thou, thou young man? And David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.

Only a few short days, (or hours) before David is re-introduced to King Saul, he was simply a shepherd boy, youngest son of Jesse, who had only two tasks in life:  tend his father’s sheep, and take provisions to his older brothers who were conscripted into Abner’s army.  David’s faithfulness to the LORD, and his courageous determination to defend Him, gave this young shepherd (who was too young to serve in the army) a perception of the circumstance that translated into his own engagement in it.  David both perceived and responded to the conflict in a manner that was in dramatic contrast to the older, experienced, men.  This response was effective simply because it was based upon, and informed by, his faith in the LORD.  When faced with a seemingly insurmountable giant of a problem (pun intended), his faith informed him of the impotent powerlessness of the problem when met with the wisdom, knowledge, and power of the LORD.

When facing the giants in our own lives, we have an opportunity to engage the same resource that David did in his defeat of his giant.  David had a relationship with the LORD that is the same relationship that the LORD establishes with the faithful today.  It is the same Holy Spirit that informs, guides, and protects the faithful.  When facing giants, the faithful will always have at their side[8] the full resources of the Holy Spirit to also inform, guide, and protect.  As the LORD did with David, when we seek the LORD when facing the giants, He can show us the true nature of the giant, the wise means of meeting the giant, and the power to overcome the giant.  Having done so we will find, like David, that the giants are not quite so intimidating, and upon their defeat, our lives can be dramatically changed when we witness the power of the LORD working in our lives.


[1] Early narratives describe the height of Goliath as “six cubits and a span,” which traditionally would be six times the length of an arm from the elbow to the fingertips plus the width of a hand.  This places his height at about nine feet.  However, the LXX describes his height as four cubits and a span, with some arguing that it is using the larger Egyptian cubit.  Consequently, there is no little controversy concerning the height of Goliath.  Also the description of the weaponry that he wielded also implies a large man of great strength.  The purpose of the narrative is not to give a detailed and accurate historical representation of Goliath, but rather to make it very clear that there was no “soldier” in Israel who would be able to stand with him in battle. C.f. Yadin-Israel, Azzan. Goliath's armor and Israelite collective memory.  Vetus testamentum, 54 no 3 2004, p 373-395 and Hays, J Daniel.  The height of Goliath: a response to Clyde Billington.  Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 50 no 3 Sep 2007, p 509-516.

[2] 1 Samuel 16:21.

[3] 1 Samuel 13:22.

[4] Goliath’s ignorance of the sling is evident that he goaded David to come closer, making him an easier target for David’s sling.

[5] 1 Samuel 18:7.

[6] 2 Samuel 4:8, 20:22; 2 Kings 6:31; Mark 6:24

[7] 1 Samuel 18:17, et. al.

[8] Paraclete, John 14:16; 1 John 2:1.

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