Genesis 1:1-25.
God as Creator

American Journal of Biblical Theology, www.biblicaltheology.com
Copyright © 2015, Dr. John W. (Jack) Carter     Scripture quotes from KJV


“From the title of the Book of Genesis, you can see that this is a book about beginnings – a book about our origin.  Imagine walking into the middle of a movie.  You would have a hard time figuring out what is going on.  You would have questions.  Who are the main characters?  What is the plot?  What is the real conflict?  Where is it all headed?  To make sense of these questions, you have to go back and watch the movie from the beginning. In the same way, the Book of Genesis is critical in helping us understand who God is, why we were created, and the purpose of life.  Something deep inside us yearns to know where we have come from, where we are headed, and why we exist.”[1]

From the beginning of recorded time mankind has clearly noted that he is different from all other creatures in the known universe.  He has a level of intelligence that is not evident in any other creature.  He also has a unique capacity to know, desire, and search for God.  There is no culture of humans that has not recognized and sought God in some way.  There are very few people who truly believe that God does not exist, and most of those who do consider themselves atheists are simply rebelling against God who has made is presence obvious.

How has God made Himself known to mankind?  The Bible is a written record of God's revelation of Himself to mankind.  Its contents were written by many different authors over many centuries, men who were inspired by God to record many of the events that took place from the narratives of creation, God's call of Abraham and his seed of Israel, His progressive revelation of Himself through the patriarchs of the faith and through the prophets of the Old Testament.  The record of God's revelation of Himself is fulfilled in the seminal event of creation when YAHWEH Himself in the Person of the Messiah, came to earth through Jesus Christ, that through Him people would be able to clearly know God, His plan for salvation, and respond to him in faith. The Bible contains a set of documents that include the language, culture, and literary forms that were a part of the author's life as it presents the eternal truths of God.  Consequently, as we approach the Bible we must consider that we are removed from the source by thousands of years of cultural change, often looking through more than one level of language translation, and observing literary forms such as allegory, metaphor, poetry, idiom, and prose. 

The Bible, as we have it today, was formed by the collection of early manuscripts by people in the first few centuries who compared the various writings that were available, rejecting (1) those that did not contain first-hand testimony of God's revelation of Himself in the Old Testament, and the life and ministry of Christ in the New Testament, and (2) those that contained inconsistencies with any other known first-hand documents.   Though this is a simplified description of how the Bible documents were selected, we were left with a set of 66 "books" that we can accept as entirely true, complete, and containing no mixture of error.  Still, we are removed from those original texts by a vast gap in time, language and culture, so there is no shortage of effort expended to try to look through those barriers to understand the true meaning and application of scripture.  Much doctrinal error is introduced into the faith when those barriers are ignored.  

The Bible is organized in a somewhat chronological order of God's progressive revelation of himself to mankind, and so it starts at the beginning of the creation of the universe, the beginning of time itself, and by so doing provides some answers to the very basic questions that an intelligent human race so desperately desire to have answered.  The Bible is not an exhaustive presentation of the physical sciences, but rather a presentation of God's work, His plan, and His purpose for mankind.  Still, it provides many answers to very basic questions of the human experience.

As we approach this study, it is probably appropriate that I reveal a little of myself.  I am not a professional theologian, but worked in a career as a physicist and engineer.   This paradigm introduces presuppositions into my presentation.  I was a child of the 1950s, a time of tremendous technological vision and innovation.  Science was beginning to grapple with the theories of physical sciences that had been formed over the years, and scientists were beginning to experiment with those theories.  Travel to the moon was no longer a dream, but a physical reality.  During those years I was intensely interested in physics, astronomy, and cosmology.   I was also intensely interested in the truths of the faith as recorded in the Bible.  Even at an early age I fully understood that there could be no inconsistencies between those two fields.  If God's word is absolutely true, and our observations of physical science uncover absolute truths, then the two must agree.   I went on to obtain degrees and graduate study in the sciences before engaging in a doctorate in theology.  Still, after many years of study in both fields, I still maintain that God's revelation of Himself through the scriptures, and His revelation of Himself through the creation that we are free to observe, are in total agreement. 

Therefore, as we approach the beginning of the literature of the Bible, the book of Genesis, I believe we can approach its words with uncompromised confidence in its integrity.  The entire content that is presented in its pages is consistent with all of God's revelation, and in its original form and presentation is a fully reliable presentation of God's plan and purpose.  Because of this, 

2 Timothy 3:16-17.  All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.

"That man may be perfect."  The word used here for "perfect" is more accurately translated "complete" in today's English.  God has a plan for mankind that he would be completed though the establishment of a relationship with Him that is based upon faith and trust in Him as God:  the God of creation, the Judge, the One who has full authority over this universe and all it contains, including mankind who He created.  The Bible presents that plan.  So, let's take a look at it from the beginning...

Gen 1:1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 

In typical Hebraic fashion, the account of creation begins with a summary statement that tells who did the creating and what He created. Basically, the rest of Genesis 1 and all of chapter 2 describe the nature of that creation and how it is related to its Creator and to itself.  Again, the presentation is not a scientific presentation of physics, but a presentation of God's act, plan, and purpose.  However the physics of creation and the act of creation are consistent, and we can fully see what we understand in the physics of this universe in the presentation of the act of creation.

1. God's Creation of the Universe

"In the beginning..." In the beginning of what? The creation of this universe, the "big bang" as some would characterize, was the beginning of time as we know and understand it, a physical property of this universe that was created by a God who is eternal and not subject to it.  The scripture is replete with references that God is eternal.[2]  The scripture does not try to prove either the existence or eternity of God, but merely presents it as a simple truth. Somewhere in His eternal existence, God began His creating activity.[3] 

You may skip the following paragraph if you do not wish to delve into speculation, as this is my personal observation and is not scriptural exegesis.   I simply want to make a point.

Man's questions concerning creation are certainly not fully answered.  How long ago was it?  What was it like?  Our observation of the universe points clearly to an event that took place many billions of years ago, an event that some have called the "big bang," when all of the matter in the known universe emanated from a small point in "space" in an explosion large enough to hurl all the matter in the universe all away from that point at unimaginable speed to what are now tremendous distances.  We observe this simply because all of the major objects in the universe are moving away from a single point, creating a continually expanding sphere of matter.  However, these celestial objects are moving at a continually decelerating rate because of their gravitational pull on each other.  So, in an ignorant effort to befuddle the best scientists, whom I respect greatly, I hold that at some point, that gravitational pull that is slowing down the expansion will stop that expansion, and the sphere will collapse upon itself, resulting in a "big crunch", followed by another "big bang."  If we consider this closed system of matter as a "closed universe", there could be billions of these closed universes involved in the bang-crunch cycle that are scattered throughout space.  My point in this speculation is that, though our understanding of physical axiom and God's Word are consistent, we really do not know the details of that science, and it is not the purpose of the Bible to reveal it.  The Bible presents a minimalist presentation of the science in order to present a complete presentation of God.  Its scientific presentation is written by ancient writers who, with their culture, had a minimal understanding of that science.  So, it was not and is not necessary for the scripture to employ 21st century scientific scrutiny in an ancient culture.  Still, it is an exciting and rewarding experience to uncover the science!

We do not know when the beginning of the universe took place, nor do we know all of the details of the event.  However, when we approach these verses we can be confident that there was a beginning to this universe, that it was God who initiated it, and it included all of the material that exists in the universe that we call home. 

".. God ..." Many names for God are used in the Old Testament. There are three most common names, "Elohim (God's creating and sustaining power), YAHWEH (God's delivering and saving power), and Adonai (God, the master of all people). Here the term used is Elohim.  Elohim is in the masculine plural form, but the verb, "created" is in the singular. Many years of study and debate have concluded that one entity, God, did the creating and that entity, His nature, is multi-faceted. The most accepted belief is that this multi-part God as described here, refers to the Trinity, the personage of God that we observe as the Father, the Messiah, and the Holy Spirit. As the scripture continues to describe the attributes of God, we find him revealing himself to mankind as God (Elohim, YAHWEH, Adonai), as the Holy Spirit (ruwach, (roo'-akh) in the Old Testament Hebrew, pnumos in the New Testament Greek, both literally meaning the "breath of God"), and the Messiah, the Christ who is the Son of God.  Nowhere in the scripture is the word, "trinity" used, but many references are made to God in this three-part manner.[4]

"... created..." To illustrate the unity or "oneness" of God, which of the three persons of God did the creating?  Reference here is made to all three. Genesis 1 and 2 refer to participation of God the Father (Elohim & YAHWEH), and God the Holy Spirit (Ruwach). John 1:1 describes in detail that Christ also is the agent of creation. How could all three have created? This is possible only because of the complete unity of God. There is no conflict of character, purpose, or action within the Godhead. The only differences are in some of the attributes the three persons of the Trinity display in their progressive revelation of God to mankind. For example, Jesus, when incarnate, could not be in all places at all times, whereas the Holy Spirit of God can. The word used for "created" is used to identify something created out of nothing, or something shaped from something that already exists. In the context used here, it clearly refers to the creation of something out of nothing.

"...the heavens and the earth..." To what does this refer?  All of creation was created by Him.  The word that is translated "heaven" refers to the universe of stars, planets, moons, etc. rather than God's eternal abode, since that abode is timeless as God is timeless.[5]   One might say the heavens and earth are "what we see when we look up, and when we look down," simply referring to everything in the universe.

Gen 1:2.  And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

What was the initial state of the earth? The same word for void is used in Isaiah 34:11 and Jeremiah 4:23 to refer to an uninhabited emptiness. The implication is that the heavens and earth are incomplete.  Even our basic observations of physical science reveal a time when the earth was forming; there was a time when it had been previously "without form and void.".

What does "darkness" refer to? Darkness is simply the absence of light.  From a physical standpoint we might argue that the sun, moon and stars did not yet provide light on the face of the earth, since they were not fully formed. From a spiritual standpoint we might argue that the Spirit of God had not yet visited his creation and it was not only physically incomplete, it was spiritually incomplete.  However, this darkness was never designed to be the state of the creation, for the next activity is described as the Spirit of God (Ruwach, Elohim) moved upon the face of the water.  The word for "moved" or "hovering" (NIV) used here is interesting. It is an intensive form that illustrates his direct involvement in its activities. That is, he was actively present and part of the creation. It did not simply burst into being on its own because God declared it so. God did not create us and let us go on alone.  He was an integral part of that creation and is still taking that active part as time, as we know it, unfolds.

God not only created, he became an active part of that creation, being present at the very point of where the creation of man was to take place. If we see the spiritual significance of this, we will note that the surface of the deep can no longer be dark. Hence the next verse comes immediately following:

Gen 1:3. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. 

2. The Light

"And God said..." Note the absolute authority of God's word. What is God's word? It is the very nature of His Will. From a physical standpoint, we may argue that at this point, since there was light, the sun, moon and stars must have been created, or at least, a dense shroud of clouds was thinned enough to allow light to enter. From a spiritual standpoint, we might note that God's presence is often illustrated in the metaphor of light. The luminaries, the sun, moon, and stars, were actually created on the sixth day (Verse 14), so we might see the broader context meant here.   Proponents of the "big bang" describe a period of darkness that followed this event as the tremendous amount of matter was scattered.  It was not until gravitational attractions accreted matter together were objects large enough to produce the atomic reactions that generate light.  

Gen 1:4. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. 

Note the pattern of creation taking place here. First, God spoke the creation into being. Second, he did so with a specific command, third is the completion of the created act, and fourth is a statement of approval. 

Some observation on the order of the universe:

Everything is accomplished in order, and all the parts of creation have their appointed place. This is shown in the separation of night from day, as they are not intermingled. It was God that caused light and darkness to separate to their own place and purpose.

We find in these passages the creation of a universe that has both order and purpose. God created a physical universe with physical laws that He set in place to govern it. Certainly the writers of the creation text had no idea of the nature of the physical properties they were describing, with its atomic particles, forces, and relationships. But Nature is certainly of such order that we can observe with some understanding many those physical properties. However, it is significant to note that mankind is still mystified when trying to explain any of the myriad of forces in nature, be it gravity, atomic binding forces, or magnetism. No one has yet to thoroughly explain any of these. We can describe their attributes quite accurately, but we still do not understand them.

As believers in creation and the sovereignty of God, it might be interesting to note that within the interrelationships of physical laws, the property of physical time plays a very important part. In the world of physics, there is a significant relationship between physical time, acceleration, and mass.  Just as we can alter mass and energy, we can alter the rate of the passing of time, and such alterations conform to the relationship, E=mC2, where E refers to energy, m to mass, and C to time, a relationship published by Albert Einstein.  What does this mean to us?  "Time" as we experience it is a physical property of the universe, not a spiritual one. God is timeless. He created time as we know it when time began at the beginning of the physical creation.   He is "omnitemporal."  That is, He is not limited by time, but rather is existent and present at every moment of time, existing both in it, and fully out of it.  It is as though He holds all of the time of creation in His hands.

Gen 1:5.  And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

We don't find many situations where God is identified as naming the objects of His creation. In the Old Testament, to name something was to have authority or dominion over it.  Consequently, God clearly has dominion over night and day.  Though many prefer to understand the Hebrew word for day, yowm, as a literal 24-hour period, the belief is not shared by all. Whether you believe that it is or not is not a test of your faith, and is not important in the overall understanding of what God has done for us. We are reminded in Romans 14 not to get caught up in judging one another in unimportant disputable matters. However, the position of a 24-hour day in the first chapters of Genesis is based more on traditional dogma than literary study.

Note that the word, yowm, is often used to identify the time between day and night, between light and darkness, and then, consequently meaning a 24-hour day. However, it is also used in many other ways to identify the time between any chosen selected events. Just in the first six chapters of Genesis, the word is used as:

"when": 2:17; 3:5; 5;1; 5:2,  "Course of Time": 4:3

"After": 5:4 "Time": 6:5

"Altogether": 5:5; 5:8; 5:11; 5:14

The time between generations, such as that separating birth and death of Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, etc.

The word, yowm, is used in the Old Testament to refer to any time period between two defined events, whether they are between night and day, birth and death of an individual, or even the birth and death of a concept. We use the words "era" and "age" in a similar fashion. It might be reasonable to note that many commentators are very dogmatic in emphasizing that this use of the word, yowm, is clearly meant to represent a 24-hour period, and that the creation took six 24-hour days. Again, it is not important how much time expired between the days of creation. What is important is that God created them, and He is sovereign over them.  As a physicist, I see a consistency between science and scripture when the more general form of the term is used.

Gen 1:6-8.  And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 7And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. 8And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

3. The firmament

The account of Noah's flood refers to two sources of earthly water, one from below, and one from above. As God created the heavens and the earth, his Spirit was present as He continued the process of creating the universe as we now know it. Here it is evident that water is being separated into two places.  As is evident from verse 7, the sources of this water are vertically separated. Therefore it may be safe to assume that we see here the order of the atmosphere with the clouds containing moisture above, and the land and ground holding moisture below. Also, since the account of Noah's flood may possibly refer to the first visible rainbow, some feel that the clouds in the sky were very dense, never allowing direct sunlight. The greenhouse effect of such cloud cover would produce a lush rain-forest environment over much of the earth, one consistent with the description of the Garden of Eden.

It may be interesting to note that the pattern of creation is broken here. There is no mention of it being good. It is argued by some that this point of creation was not complete. It only was completed after Noah's flood and God's promise to man never to use the waters of the firmament to destroy him again.  Obviously, people still die in floods from torrential rains.  However, if the waters of the firmament were as dense as these verses and some speculators imply, Noah's flood involved the collapse of that canopy of cloud.

Some translations use the word, "heaven" or "heavens" as is commonly done to refer to the sky. It does not refer to Heaven as the abode of God, but rather the sky of creation with its air and clouds. Heaven, the abode of God, is spiritual and eternal, as God is spiritual and eternal, not a part of the creation event.

Gen 1:9-10. And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. 10And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. 

4. The fertile earth

We see here the forming of the continents. If the earth were a perfect sphere with no rotation, there would be no land. A shallow sea would cover the whole earth. However, the earth is not a perfect sphere.  Because it is rotating, its surface is subject to forces of pressure from within and without.    God used these forces to forge the surface, providing for expanses of dry land rising above the waters.

Again, he named the land, identifying His sovereignty over it and his active participation in the creation of it. Again, he separated two entities into distinct forms, illustrating the order of creation. This is not a random occurrence. We see here all four steps of the creation pattern, possibly identifying its completion. 

Gen 1:11-13. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. 12And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 13And the evening and the morning were the third day.

We see here the creation of vegetation on the dry land which rose above the waters. Clearly the seed is self-propagating, and ordered into many different varieties, each maintaining its own form or species. Again, this illustrates the divine order in creation.  Verse 11 introduces the creation of life and its reproduction.  It describes the creation of these grasses, herbs, and trees as separate and distinct, each reproducing its own form from its own seed.  There is no genetic mixture between species, nor does one genetic form evolve into another.  As much as non-scientific theories would like to describe an evolution of genetics, it simply does not exist.  Genetic evolution of one species into another is not described in scripture, nor is it found anywhere in science.  The genetics of each species has remained distinct and separate throughout all historical and archaeological history.  The physical characteristics of species has changed over the ages due to natural selection, but not their genetics.  This is an important point to those who are interested in such arguments.

Gen 1:14-19. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: 15And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. 16And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. 17And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 18And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. 19And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

5. The luminaries.

As we observe the second half of the six days of creation we will see a pattern between the first day and the fourth, the second and the fifth, and the third and the sixth in what is a typical Hebrew poetic structure.

Note too that the description of the fourth day is longer than any other. Of all of creation, the luminaries have been used the most to blaspheme God through their worship. Chapter two of Paul’s letter to the Romans refers to mankind worshipping the creation rather than the creator. In these verses, God makes it plain that He created the sun, moon and stars. He is the sovereign God. They are merely physical forms which He created in the order of his creation.  The ancients had no idea of the physical properties of the stars, nor did they understand that the sun was a small star.  Many thought that the stars were holes in a spherical covering over the earth that separated it from the light of heaven.  Consequently, the accuracy of the Genesis account is uncanny, and explainable only because it is simply God's truth revealed.  There is no basis in ancient science for the writers to have originated such an account.

On the first day God created the heavens, the earth, and light. On the fourth day he created that which reveals all of these: the sun, moon and stars.  In the first day the word used for light was singular. It was a single entity or concept. Consequently, many feel that this is referring to the light of God as He is light. In the fourth day, the word used for light is plural. and they are given the task of being signs to mark the days, the seasons, and the years. They also had the task of providing physical light to the earth.  The sun, moon, and stars are not given authority over mankind, nor over any part of living creation.  The ancients attributed deity to these objects only because they did not understand them.  There is no deity given to the luminaries in scripture.  However, we can use them to determine the passing of a day (sun), a month (moon), and the seasons (stars.)  Note that there is no astrological authority given to the stars.  The stars do not dictate or influence the events of man.  Consequently, it is inappropriate for a Christian to ascribe to the tenets of astrology, a pagan pseudoscience.  It is a very short step from the practice of astrology to the practice of the occult, and Christians should be aware of the nature of those practices, but not partakers in them.   

Gen 1:20-23. And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. 21And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 22And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. 23And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

6. The birds and the fish

On the second day God created the waters and the sky. On the fifth day he filled them with fish and birds. The creation pattern is complete with his declaration that it is good. This is the first time that God blessed the fruit of his creation and gave it a command to be fruitful and multiply. As we continue in the study of God's creation we are going to see that there are three types of life which he created. The first type, the vegetation, has no self-awareness as we know it. Consequently, communication with a plant is rather fruitless (pun). That was on the fourth day.  The creation of the birds and fish is the second step in this three-tiered organization of life on earth.

Gen 1:24-25. And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. 25And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

7. The Land Creatures

On the third day God created the dry land. On the sixth day he populated it. The creation of animals on the fifth and sixth days marks the second type of life He created. Animals, like plants will reproduce their kind. However they also have instinct, intelligence, and self-awareness.  Unlike plants, they have the capability to communicate with each other and with other species quite effectively. Some would say that animals (including the birds, fish, and even insects), unlike plants, have a soul.  So, we again see a distinct separation in the order of the universe.  Certainly, modern science has uncovered forms of life that are less easily categorized,  but that is simply a matter of our definition of the categories, and our understanding of the species.  There are some forms of plant life that appear to have some characteristics of lower animals.  Where does a virus fit in this categorization?  The scripture does not address this level of scrutiny, but certainly does demonstrate God's order in creation.

We will see as we continue in the book of Genesis, that the third and unique type of life that God created is Man. Like a plant, man will reproduce his species, and like an animal has self-awareness and the ability to communicate. However, unlike the animal, Man has an awareness of God that the LORD breathed into him. Like a plant he has a body, like an animal he has a soul, but only he in all creation has an eternal spirit, which sets him apart of all creation and forms him in the likeness of the creator.  In this manner, man is made in the image of his creator.

The sequence of creation shown here is also in agreement with archeological evidence.  Plants appeared on the earth first, then animals (including as it is described here, all manner of creatures that crawl on the earth).  Mankind appears last.  There is no archaeological evidence of the appearance of any new species after mankind.  Though people would like to tie the genetics of the appearance of man to the lower animals, and tie the genetics of the lower animals to the flora, there is simply no evidence of such a connection taking place.  Genetic evidence points clearly to the sequence of the account in Genesis, and account that was written long before anyone even thought about the science it defends.

Certainly, the Genesis account is not a scientific treatise on the events surrounding the beginning of the universe, but it does provide an astounding accurate account of those events when scrutinized with the physical evidence.  This account was written thousands of years before there was any science to produce it, or any public opinion to form it.  The world's depiction of the events of creation were quite different from the Genesis account, and even through the 16th century, the accepted science was in significant variance from it.  Starting with the controversial works of Copernicus and DaVinci, through the contemporary works of Einstein and Hawking, our understanding of the physics of this universe has continually moved us closer and closer to an understanding of our world and universe that is consistent with the scriptural account.

Summary

God created the heavens and the earth.  We may not know exactly how or when He did it, but we can be assured that He did.  As the Creator, God has sovereignty over it, and consequently He has the right of sovereignty over mankind.  However, God is a loving God and does not force his sovereignty over man, but rather offers his grace to a mankind who would reject Him.  God's plan for man's salvation unfolds in the remaining pages of the Bible, a plan that first illustrates man's need for salvation, and then provides that means through the work of the Messiah, Jesus Christ.  God created mankind for eternal fellowship with him, a fellowship that is offered to all who will come to Him in faith, access that comes only through the atoning death and the advocacy of Jesus Christ.

As we observe God's creation, let us not forget who the creator is, and let us place our faith and trust only in Him.

 

[1] Afshin Ziafat, A Word from the General Editor.  Explore the Bible Adult Leader Guide. Nashville, TN:  Lifeway.  Fall, 2015.   P. 5.

[2] Deuteronomy 32:39; Psalm 90:2, 93:2; Isaiah 44:6, 48:12.

[3] Isaiah 46:10; Proverbs 8:22-31; John 1:1-3.

[4] John 10:30; Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 2 Corinthians 13:14; Matthew 3:16-17; John 14:26; John 1:14; 1 John 5:7-8; John 14:16-17;  Colossians 2:9; Philippians 2:5-8; Genesis 1:26; John 1:1-51; 1 Peter 1:2; Ephesians 4:4-6; 2 Corinthians 1:21-22; John 10:30-36; Genesis 3:22.

[5] Genesis 14:19,22; 24:3; Deuteronomy 3:24.